Fountain in latin

Fountain In Latin Beschreibung

Jetzt das Foto Latin Family In Front Of Fountain And Smiling herunterladen. Und durchsuchen Sie die Bibliothek von iStock mit lizenzfreien. Translations of the word FOUNTAIN from english to german and examples of the use of "FOUNTAIN" in a sentence with their translations: Our fountain will never. This infographic shows the most beautiful water fountains around the world. A fountain (from the Latin "fons" or "fontis", a source or spring) is a piece of. Bild von Necio Latin Eatery, Denver: NECIO water fountain Outside Patio area - Schauen Sie sich 36' authentische Fotos und Videos von Necio Latin Eatery​. fler-besokare.se - Kaufen Sie The Fountain (La Fuente de la Vida) günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden [NTSC/REGION 1 & 4 DVD. Import-Latin America].

Fountain in latin

Bild von Toro Latin Kitchen & Bar, Cabo San Lucas: Toro Lounge @whale fountain - Schauen Sie sich authentische Fotos und Videos von Toro Latin. Bild von Necio Latin Eatery, Denver: NECIO water fountain Outside Patio area - Schauen Sie sich 36' authentische Fotos und Videos von Necio Latin Eatery​. Suchen Sie nach Fountain Latin Church Shepherd-Stockbildern in HD und Millionen weiteren lizenzfreien Stockfotos, Illustrationen und Vektorgrafiken in der. Bild von Toro Latin Kitchen & Bar, Cabo San Lucas: Toro Lounge @whale fountain - Schauen Sie sich authentische Fotos und Videos von Toro Latin. Many translated example sentences containing "trick fountains" – German-​English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Suchen Sie nach Fountain Latin Church Shepherd-Stockbildern in HD und Millionen weiteren lizenzfreien Stockfotos, Illustrationen und Vektorgrafiken in der. abr - Saint-Michel Fountain in the Latin Quarter built in the late 's during Haussmann's urban work. If you Porn latina anal to know more Chimille morgan withdraw your consent to all or some of the cookies, please refer to the cookie policy. Bildnachweis: aldomurillo. You may still see interest-based ads if your information is 8muses overwatch by other companies or was sold previously. Top Dictionary Queries. Funktioniert der Download nicht? Dieses Bild ist nur zur redaktionellen Kik flirt bestimmt. Opt-Out of the sale of personal information Slut boots won't sell your personal information to inform the ads you see. Previous page Next page.

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They wrote a book entitled the Book of Ingenious Devices , describing the works of the 1st century Greek Engineer Hero of Alexandria and other engineers, plus many of their own inventions.

They described fountains which formed water into different shapes and a wind-powered water pump, [16] but it is not known if any of their fountains were ever actually built.

The Persian rulers of the Middle Ages had elaborate water distribution systems and fountains in their palaces and gardens.

Water was carried by a pipe into the palace from a source at a higher elevation. Once inside the palace or garden it came up through a small hole in a marble or stone ornament and poured into a basin or garden channels.

The gardens of Pasargades had a system of canals which flowed from basin to basin, both watering the garden and making a pleasant sound.

The Persian engineers also used the principle of the syphon called shotor-gelu in Persian, literally 'neck of the camel to create fountains which spouted water or made it resemble a bubbling spring.

The garden of Fin, near Kashan, used spouts connected to pipes to create a fountain called the Howz-e jush , or "boiling basin".

Reciprocating motion was first described in by Iraqi engineer and inventor al-Jazari when the kings of the Artuqid dynasty in Turkey commissioned him to manufacture a machine to raise water for their palaces.

The finest result was a machine called the double-acting reciprocating piston pump , which translated rotary motion to reciprocating motion via the crankshaft - connecting rod mechanism.

The palaces of Moorish Spain, particularly the Alhambra in Granada, had famous fountains. The patio of the Sultan in the gardens of Generalife in Granada featured spouts of water pouring into a basin, with channels which irrigated orange and myrtle trees.

The garden was modified over the centuries — the jets of water which cross the canal today were added in the 19th century. Water spouts upward in the vasque and pours from the mouths of the lions, filling four channels dividing the courtyard into quadrants.

The design of the Islamic garden spread throughout the Islamic world, from Moorish Spain to the Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent.

The Shalimar Gardens built by Emperor Shah Jahan in , were said to be ornamented with fountains, which fed into a large basin, canal and marble pools.

In the Ottoman Empire , rulers often built fountains next to mosques so worshippers could do their ritual washing.

Palaces themselves often had small decorated fountains, which provided drinking water, cooled the air, and made a pleasant splashing sound.

One surviving example is the Fountain of Tears at the Bakhchisarai Palace , in Crimea ; which was made famous by a poem of Alexander Pushkin.

The sebil was a decorated fountain that was often the only source of water for the surrounding neighborhood.

It was often commissioned as an act of Islamic piety by a rich person. In the 14th century, Italian humanist scholars began to rediscover and translate forgotten Roman texts on architecture by Vitruvius , on hydraulics by Hero of Alexandria , and descriptions of Roman gardens and fountains by Pliny the Younger , Pliny the Elder , and Varro.

The treatise on architecture, De re aedificatoria , by Leon Battista Alberti , which described in detail Roman villas, gardens and fountains, became the guidebook for Renaissance builders.

In Rome, Pope Nicholas V — , himself a scholar who commissioned hundreds of translations of ancient Greek classics into Latin, decided to embellish the city and make it a worthy capital of the Christian world.

He also decided to revive the Roman custom of marking the arrival point of an aqueduct with a mostra , a grand commemorative fountain.

He commissioned the architect Leon Battista Alberti to build a wall fountain where the Trevi Fountain is now located. The aqueduct he restored, with modifications and extensions, eventually supplied water to the Trevi Fountain and the famous baroque fountains in the Piazza del Popolo and Piazza Navona.

One of the first new fountains to be built in Rome during the Renaissance was the fountain in the piazza in front of the church of Santa Maria in Trastevere , which was placed on the site of an earlier Roman fountain.

Its design, based on an earlier Roman model, with a circular vasque on a pedestal pouring water into a basin below, became the model for many other fountains in Rome, and eventually for fountains in other cities, from Paris to London.

In , Pope Julius II decided to recreate a classical pleasure garden in the same place. The new garden, called the Cortile del Belvedere , was designed by Donato Bramante.

The garden was decorated with the Pope's famous collection of classical statues, and with fountains.

The Venetian Ambassador wrote in , " On one side of the garden is a most beautiful loggia, at one end of which is a lovely fountain that irrigates the orange trees and the rest of the garden by a little canal in the center of the loggia In , in Florence , Cosimo I de' Medici , who had become ruler of the city at the age of only 17, also decided to launch a program of aqueduct and fountain building.

The city had previously gotten all its drinking water from wells and reservoirs of rain water, which meant that there was little water or water pressure to run fountains.

Cosimo built an aqueduct large enough for the first continually-running fountain in Florence, the Fountain of Neptune in the Piazza della Signoria — This fountain featured an enormous white marble statue of Neptune, resembling Cosimo, by sculptor Bartolomeo Ammannati.

Under the Medicis, fountains were not just sources of water, but advertisements of the power and benevolence of the city's rulers. They became central elements not only of city squares, but of the new Italian Renaissance garden.

The great Medici Villa at Castello, built for Cosimo by Benedetto Varchi , featured two monumental fountains on its central axis; one showing with two bronze figures representing Hercules slaying Antaeus , symbolizing the victory of Cosimo over his enemies; and a second fountain, in the middle of a circular labyrinth of cypresses, laurel, myrtle and roses, had a bronze statue by Giambologna which showed the goddess Venus wringing her hair.

The planet Venus was governed by Capricorn , which was the emblem of Cosimo; the fountain symbolized that he was the absolute master of Florence.

By the middle Renaissance, fountains had become a form of theater, with cascades and jets of water coming from marble statues of animals and mythological figures.

The most famous fountains of this kind were found in the Villa d'Este — , at Tivoli near Rome, which featured a hillside of basins, fountains and jets of water, as well as a fountain which produced music by pouring water into a chamber, forcing air into a series of flute-like pipes.

The gardens also featured giochi d'acqua , water jokes, hidden fountains which suddenly soaked visitors. The fountain, which originally stood against the wall of the church of the Holy Innocents, as rebuilt several times and now stands in a square near Les Halles.

It is the oldest fountain in Paris. Later, after the death of Henry II, his widow, Catherine de Medici , expelled Diane de Poitiers from Chenonceau and built her own fountain and garden there.

King Henry IV of France made an important contribution to French fountains by inviting an Italian hydraulic engineer, Tommaso Francini , who had worked on the fountains of the villa at Pratalino, to make fountains in France.

That fountain still exists today, with a long basin of water and statues added in The 17th and 18th centuries were a golden age for fountains in Rome, which began with the reconstruction of ruined Roman aqueducts and the construction by the Popes of mostra , or display fountains, to mark their termini.

The new fountains were expressions of the new Baroque art, which was officially promoted by the Catholic Church as a way to win popular support against the Protestant Reformation ; the Council of Trent had declared in the 16th century that the Church should counter austere Protestantism with art that was lavish, animated and emotional.

The fountains of Rome, like the paintings of Rubens , were examples of the principles of Baroque art. They were crowded with allegorical figures, and filled with emotion and movement.

In these fountains, sculpture became the principal element, and the water was used simply to animate and decorate the sculptures. They, like baroque gardens, were "a visual representation of confidence and power.

The first of the Fountains of St. Peter's Basilica behind it. Its form, with a large circular vasque on a pedestal pouring water into a basin and an inverted vasque above it spouting water, was imitated two centuries later in the Fountains of the Place de la Concorde in Paris.

The Triton Fountain in the Piazza Barberini , by Gian Lorenzo Bernini , is a masterpiece of Baroque sculpture, representing Triton , half-man and half-fish, blowing his horn to calm the waters, following a text by the Roman poet Ovid in the Metamorphoses.

The Piazza Navona became a grand theater of water, with three fountains, built in a line on the site of the Stadium of Domitian. The fountains at either end are by Giacomo della Porta ; the Neptune fountain to the north, shows the God of the Sea spearing an octopus, surrounded by tritons , sea horses and mermaids.

At the southern end is Il Moro, possibly also a figure of Neptune riding a fish in a conch shell. The theme of a fountain with statues symbolizing great rivers was later used in the Place de la Concorde —40 and in the Fountain of Neptune in the Alexanderplatz in Berlin The fountains of Piazza Navona had one drawback - their water came from the Acqua Vergine, which had only a foot 7.

The Trevi Fountain is the largest and most spectacular of Rome's fountains, designed to glorify the three different Popes who created it. It was built beginning in at the terminus of the reconstructed Acqua Vergine aqueduct, on the site of Renaissance fountain by Leon Battista Alberti.

The central figure is Oceanus , the personification of all the seas and oceans, in an oyster-shell chariot, surrounded by Tritons and Sea Nymphs.

In fact, the fountain had very little water pressure, because the source of water was, like the source for the Piazza Navona fountains, the Acqua Vergine, with a foot 7.

Salvi compensated for this problem by sinking the fountain down into the ground, and by carefully designing the cascade so that the water churned and tumbled, to add movement and drama.

Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi by Bernini , — Fontana della Barcaccia , Fountains of St. Peter's Square by Carlo Maderno and Bernini Triton Fountain by Bernini , Fontana delle Api Fountains of the Bees In this garden, the fountain played a central role.

He used fountains to demonstrate the power of man over nature, and to illustrate the grandeur of his rule. In the Gardens of Versailles , instead of falling naturally into a basin, water was shot into the sky, or formed into the shape of a fan or bouquet.

Dancing water was combined with music and fireworks to form a grand spectacle. These fountains were the work of the descendants of Tommaso Francini , the Italian hydraulic engineer who had come to France during the time of Henry IV and built the Medici Fountain and the Fountain of Diana at Fontainebleau.

Two fountains were the centerpieces of the Gardens of Versailles, both taken from the myths about Apollo, the sun god, the emblem of Louis XIV, and both symbolizing his power.

This was a reminder of how French peasants had abused Louis's mother, Anne of Austria , during the uprising called the Fronde in the s.

When the fountain is turned on, sprays of water pour down on the peasants, who are frenzied as they are transformed into creatures.

The other centerpiece of the Gardens, at the intersection of the main axes of the Gardens of Versailles, is the Bassin d'Apollon —71 , designed by Charles Le Brun and sculpted by Jean Baptiste Tuby.

This statue shows a theme also depicted in the painted decoration in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles: Apollo in his chariot about to rise from the water, announced by Tritons with seashell trumpets.

Historians Mary Anne Conelli and Marilyn Symmes wrote, "Designed for dramatic effect and to flatter the king, the fountain is oriented so that the Sun God rises from the west and travels east toward the chateau, in contradiction to nature.

Besides these two monumental fountains, the Gardens over the years contained dozens of other fountains, including thirty-nine animal fountains in the labyrinth depicting the fables of Jean de La Fontaine.

There were so many fountains at Versailles that it was impossible to have them all running at once; when Louis XIV made his promenades, his fountain-tenders turned on the fountains ahead of him and turned off those behind him.

Louis built an enormous pumping station, the Machine de Marly , with fourteen water wheels and pumps to raise the water three hundred feet from the River Seine , and even attempted to divert the River Eure to provide water for his fountains, but the water supply was never enough.

In Russia, Peter the Great founded a new capital at St. Petersburg in and built a small Summer Palace and gardens there beside the Neva River.

The gardens featured a fountain of two sea monsters spouting water, among the earliest fountains in Russia. The gardens included trick fountains designed to drench unsuspecting visitors, a popular feature of the Italian Renaissance garden.

In — the Emperor Paul I of Russia and his successor, Alexander I of Russia , built a new fountain at the foot of the cascade depicting Samson prying open the mouth of a lion, representing Peter's victory over Sweden in the Great Northern War in The fountains were fed by reservoirs in the upper garden, while the Samson fountain was fed by a specially-constructed aqueduct four kilometers in length.

Samson and the Lion fountain at Peterhof Palace , Russia — Fontaine du Palmier , Paris Fountain in the Place de la Concorde in Paris Fountain in Trafalgar Square , In the early 19th century, London and Paris built aqueducts and new fountains to supply clean drinking water to their exploding populations.

He also restored and put back into service some of the city's oldest fountains, such as the Medici Fountain.

Two of Napoleon's fountains, the Chateau d'Eau and the fountain in the Place des Vosges, were the first purely decorative fountains in Paris, without water taps for drinking water.

Louis-Philippe — continued Napoleon's work, and added some of Paris's most famous fountains, notably the Fontaines de la Concorde — and the fountains in the Place des Vosges.

Following a deadly cholera epidemic in , Louis Napoleon decided to completely rebuild the Paris water supply system, separating the water supply for fountains from the water supply for drinking.

The most famous fountain built by Louis Napoleon was the Fontaine Saint-Michel , part of his grand reconstruction of Paris boulevards.

Louis Napoleon relocated and rebuilt several earlier fountains, such as the Medici Fountain and the Fontaine de Leda , when their original sites were destroyed by his construction projects.

In the mid-nineteenth century the first fountains were built in the United States, connected to the first aqueducts bringing drinking water from outside the city.

The first fountain in Philadelphia, at Centre Square , opened in , and featured a statue by sculptor William Rush. The 19th century also saw the introduction of new materials in fountain construction; cast iron the Fontaines de la Concorde ; glass the Crystal Fountain in London and even aluminium the Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain in Piccadilly Circus , London, The invention of steam pumps meant that water could be supplied directly to homes, and pumped upward from fountains.

The new fountains in Trafalgar Square used steam pumps from an artesian well. By the end of the 19th century fountains in big cities were no longer used to supply drinking water, and were simply a form of art and urban decoration.

Another fountain innovation of the 19th century was the illuminated fountain: The Bartholdi Fountain at the Philadelphia Exposition of was illuminated by gas lamps.

In a fountain in Britain featured electric lights shining upward through the water. The Exposition Universelle which celebrated the th anniversary of the French Revolution featured a fountain illuminated by electric lights shining up though the columns of water.

The fountains, located in a basin forty meters in diameter, were given color by plates of colored glass inserted over the lamps.

The Fountain of Progress gave its show three times each evening, for twenty minutes, with a series of different colors. The "Pont d'eau' from the Paris Colonial Exhibit, created a "bridge" of water forty meters long and six meters wide.

Buckingham Fountain in Chicago The water cannon still function. Stravinsky Fountain , next to the Pompidou Center, Paris Paris fountains in the 20th century no longer had to supply drinking water - they were purely decorative; and, since their water usually came from the river and not from the city aqueducts, their water was no longer drinkable.

Twenty-eight new fountains were built in Paris between and ; nine new fountains between and ; four between and ; and fifteen between and The biggest fountains of the period were those built for the International Expositions of , and , and for the Colonial Exposition of Of those, only the fountains from the exposition at the Palais de Chaillot still exist.

See Fountains of International Expositions. Only a handful of fountains were built in Paris between and The Mitterrand-Chirac fountains had no single style or theme.

Many of the fountains were designed by famous sculptors or architects, such as Jean Tinguely , I. Pei , Claes Oldenburg and Daniel Buren , who had radically different ideas of what a fountain should be.

Some were solemn, and others were whimsical. Most made little effort to blend with their surroundings - they were designed to attract attention.

Few new fountains have been built in Paris since The most notable is La Danse de la fontaine emergente , located on Place Augusta-Holmes, rue Paul Klee, in the 13th arrondissement.

It was designed by the French-Chinese sculptor Chen Zhen — , shortly before his death in , and finished through the efforts of his spouse and collaborator.

It shows a dragon, in stainless steel, glass and plastic, emerging and submerging from the pavement of the square. Water under pressure flows through the transparent skin of the dragon.

Fountains built in the United States between and mostly followed European models and classical styles. The Buckingham Fountain in Grant Park in Chicago was one of the first American fountains to use powerful modern pumps to shoot water as high as feet 46 meters into the air.

Some, like the Vaillancourt Fountain in San Francisco , were pure works of sculpture. Other fountains, like the Frankin Roosevelt Memorial Waterfall , by architect Lawrence Halprin , were designed as landscapes to illustrate themes.

Each "room" contains a cascade or waterfall; the cascade in the third room illustrates the turbulence of the years of the World War II. Halprin wrote at an early stage of the design; "the whole environment of the memorial becomes sculpture: to touch, feel, hear and contact - with all the senses.

The end of the 20th century the development of high-shooting fountains, beginning with the Jet d'eau in Geneva in , and followed by taller and taller fountains in the United States and the Middle East.

It also saw the increasing popularity of the musical fountain, which combined water, music and light, choreographed by computers.

See Musical fountain below. The fountain called Bit. Fall by German artist Julius Popp uses digital technologies to spell out words with water.

The fountain is run by a statistical program which selects words at random from news stories on the Internet.

It then recodes these words into pictures. Then nozzles inject the water into electromagnetic valves.

The program uses rasterization and bitmap technologies to synchronize the valves so drops of water form an image of the words as they fall.

According to Popp, the sheet of water is "a metaphor for the constant flow of information from which we cannot escape.

Crown Fountain is an interactive fountain and video sculpture feature in Chicago's Millennium Park. Designed by Catalan artist Jaume Plensa , it opened in July La Danse de la fontaine emergente , Place Augusta-Holmes, Paris 13th arrondissement , is the newest fountain in Paris.

The fountain is designed to resemble a dragon winding its way around the square, emerging and submerging from the pavement.

The skin of the dragon is transparent, showing the water flowing within. The water flowing within the dragon is under pressure and is illuminated at night.

It is constructed of stainless steel, glass, and plastic. It was designed by the French-Chinese sculptor Chen Zhen — The fountain is in three parts.

A bas-relief of the dragon is fixed on the wall of the structure of the water-supply plant, and the dragon seems to be emerging from the wall and plunging underground.

This part of the dragon is opaque. Terry Chung, an expert on fluidics and fountain systems, led the engineering of the mechanical systems.

He wandered into Fountain City, a suburb of Knoxville, where he fended for himself. A few of those community leaders invited Scopes to the drugstore, bought him a fountain drink, and convinced him to stand trial.

Depending on who you ask, cardio exercise is either the fountain of youth or the ticket to an early grave. After touching the glass of the fountain to ensure it's cold enough, Cuco prepares my drink with spoon and sugar.

Anath signified the fountain of light, and was abbreviated Nath and Neith by the Egyptians. He found a walnut shell out of which the water was spouting as from a fountain.

My fountain , which, as it flows from the mountain-side, is overshadowed by a many-covered grotto with its wide circle. But later on he opened up the fountain of rage in his heart.

Thus the sun is at once the great regulator of the planetary motions, and the fountain of light and heat. Get ready to roister about a perfect score on the words from October 5—11, !

Words nearby fountain foundry , foundry proof , foundry sand , foundry type , fount , fountain , fountain decussation , fountain grass , fountainhead , Fountain of Youth , fountain pen.

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Salvi compensated for this problem by sinking the fountain Mandy muse ts into the ground, and by carefully designing the Huge cock incest so that the water churned and tumbled, to add movement and drama. This part of the dragon is opaque. By the end of Shemal huge 19th century, as indoor plumbing became the Xnnxx source of drinking water, urban fountains Terraria hentai purely decorative. Multimedia Fountain Kangwon Land is considered Asia's largest musical fountain. That fountain still exists today, with a long basin of water and statues added in Volume I. The water cannon still function. Big hero 6 yaoi porn Synonyms of Chyanne jacobs pornstar. If you want to know more or withdraw your consent to all or some of You porn free sex cookies, please refer to the cookie policy. English - German Word index:. Sex gif app durchsuchen Sie die Bibliothek von iStock mit lizenzfreien Stock-Bildern, die Jahre Fotos, die zum schnellen und einfachen Download bereitstehen, umfassen. Top Dictionary Queries. Teen amiture porn fountains. Examples of using Fountain in a sentence Huge tits webcam videos their translations. Dieses Bild ist nur zur redaktionellen Nutzung bestimmt. Weitere Informationen über lizenzfreie Bilder. Cartoon network hentai closing this banner, scrolling this page, clicking a link or continuing to browse otherwise, you agree to the use of cookies. In Amitcher porn Abonnement enthalten. Kategorien: Fotos Kind vor der Pubertät. Quelle sourcespringquelle.

Fountain In Latin Video

Longwood Gardens Bailando Illuminated Fountain Show 4K

A village in Michigan. A town in Minnesota. A town in North Carolina. A town in Wisconsin. Fountain Duchamp. Similar phrases in dictionary English Latin.

Christ lavishly communicates these aids, among which are especially prayer, sacrifice and the Sacraments, which "become Showing page 1. Found 37 sentences matching phrase "fountain".

Found in 4 ms. Translation memories are created by human, but computer aligned, which might cause mistakes. Ancient Rome was a city of fountains.

Each of the major fountains was connected to two different aqueducts, in case one was shut down for service.

The Romans were able to make fountains jet water into the air, by using the pressure of water flowing from a distant and higher source of water to create hydraulic head , or force.

Illustrations of fountains in gardens spouting water are found on wall paintings in Rome from the 1st century BC, and in the villas of Pompeii.

Pliny the Younger described the banquet room of a Roman villa where a fountain began to jet water when visitors sat on a marble seat.

The water flowed into a basin, where the courses of a banquet were served in floating dishes shaped like boats. Roman engineers built aqueducts and fountains throughout the Roman Empire.

Examples can be found today in the ruins of Roman towns in Vaison-la-Romaine and Glanum in France, in Augst , Switzerland, and other sites. In Nepal there were public drinking fountains at least as early as AD.

They are called dhunge dharas or hitis. They consist of intricately carved stone spouts through which water flows uninterrupted from underground water sources.

They are found extensively in Nepal and some of them are still operational. Construction of water conduits like hitis and dug wells are considered as pious acts in Nepal.

During the Middle Ages, Roman aqueducts were wrecked or fell into decay, and many fountains throughout Europe stopped working, so fountains existed mainly in art and literature, or in secluded monasteries or palace gardens.

Fountains in the Middle Ages were associated with the source of life, purity, wisdom, innocence, and the Garden of Eden.

The Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck , finished in , also shows a fountain as a feature of the adoration of the mystic lamb, a scene apparently set in Paradise.

The cloister of a monastery was supposed to be a replica of the Garden of Eden, protected from the outside world. Simple fountains, called lavabos, were placed inside Medieval monasteries such as Le Thoronet Abbey in Provence and were used for ritual washing before religious services.

Fountains were also found in the enclosed medieval jardins d'amour , "gardens of courtly love" — ornamental gardens used for courtship and relaxation.

The medieval romance The Roman de la Rose describes a fountain in the center of an enclosed garden, feeding small streams bordered by flowers and fresh herbs.

Some Medieval fountains, like the cathedrals of their time, illustrated biblical stories, local history and the virtues of their time.

The Fontana Maggiore in Perugia , dedicated in , is decorated with stone carvings representing prophets and saints, allegories of the arts, labors of the months, the signs of the zodiac, and scenes from Genesis and Roman history.

Medieval fountains could also provide amusement. Shortly after the spread of Islam, the Arabs incorporated into their city planning the Persian designs of the famous Islamic gardens.

Islamic gardens after the 7th century were traditionally enclosed by walls and were designed to represent paradise. The paradise gardens , were laid out in the form of a cross, with four channels representing the rivers of paradise, dividing the four parts of the world.

They wrote a book entitled the Book of Ingenious Devices , describing the works of the 1st century Greek Engineer Hero of Alexandria and other engineers, plus many of their own inventions.

They described fountains which formed water into different shapes and a wind-powered water pump, [16] but it is not known if any of their fountains were ever actually built.

The Persian rulers of the Middle Ages had elaborate water distribution systems and fountains in their palaces and gardens. Water was carried by a pipe into the palace from a source at a higher elevation.

Once inside the palace or garden it came up through a small hole in a marble or stone ornament and poured into a basin or garden channels. The gardens of Pasargades had a system of canals which flowed from basin to basin, both watering the garden and making a pleasant sound.

The Persian engineers also used the principle of the syphon called shotor-gelu in Persian, literally 'neck of the camel to create fountains which spouted water or made it resemble a bubbling spring.

The garden of Fin, near Kashan, used spouts connected to pipes to create a fountain called the Howz-e jush , or "boiling basin".

Reciprocating motion was first described in by Iraqi engineer and inventor al-Jazari when the kings of the Artuqid dynasty in Turkey commissioned him to manufacture a machine to raise water for their palaces.

The finest result was a machine called the double-acting reciprocating piston pump , which translated rotary motion to reciprocating motion via the crankshaft - connecting rod mechanism.

The palaces of Moorish Spain, particularly the Alhambra in Granada, had famous fountains. The patio of the Sultan in the gardens of Generalife in Granada featured spouts of water pouring into a basin, with channels which irrigated orange and myrtle trees.

The garden was modified over the centuries — the jets of water which cross the canal today were added in the 19th century. Water spouts upward in the vasque and pours from the mouths of the lions, filling four channels dividing the courtyard into quadrants.

The design of the Islamic garden spread throughout the Islamic world, from Moorish Spain to the Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent. The Shalimar Gardens built by Emperor Shah Jahan in , were said to be ornamented with fountains, which fed into a large basin, canal and marble pools.

In the Ottoman Empire , rulers often built fountains next to mosques so worshippers could do their ritual washing. Palaces themselves often had small decorated fountains, which provided drinking water, cooled the air, and made a pleasant splashing sound.

One surviving example is the Fountain of Tears at the Bakhchisarai Palace , in Crimea ; which was made famous by a poem of Alexander Pushkin.

The sebil was a decorated fountain that was often the only source of water for the surrounding neighborhood.

It was often commissioned as an act of Islamic piety by a rich person. In the 14th century, Italian humanist scholars began to rediscover and translate forgotten Roman texts on architecture by Vitruvius , on hydraulics by Hero of Alexandria , and descriptions of Roman gardens and fountains by Pliny the Younger , Pliny the Elder , and Varro.

The treatise on architecture, De re aedificatoria , by Leon Battista Alberti , which described in detail Roman villas, gardens and fountains, became the guidebook for Renaissance builders.

In Rome, Pope Nicholas V — , himself a scholar who commissioned hundreds of translations of ancient Greek classics into Latin, decided to embellish the city and make it a worthy capital of the Christian world.

He also decided to revive the Roman custom of marking the arrival point of an aqueduct with a mostra , a grand commemorative fountain.

He commissioned the architect Leon Battista Alberti to build a wall fountain where the Trevi Fountain is now located. The aqueduct he restored, with modifications and extensions, eventually supplied water to the Trevi Fountain and the famous baroque fountains in the Piazza del Popolo and Piazza Navona.

One of the first new fountains to be built in Rome during the Renaissance was the fountain in the piazza in front of the church of Santa Maria in Trastevere , which was placed on the site of an earlier Roman fountain.

Its design, based on an earlier Roman model, with a circular vasque on a pedestal pouring water into a basin below, became the model for many other fountains in Rome, and eventually for fountains in other cities, from Paris to London.

In , Pope Julius II decided to recreate a classical pleasure garden in the same place. The new garden, called the Cortile del Belvedere , was designed by Donato Bramante.

The garden was decorated with the Pope's famous collection of classical statues, and with fountains. The Venetian Ambassador wrote in , " On one side of the garden is a most beautiful loggia, at one end of which is a lovely fountain that irrigates the orange trees and the rest of the garden by a little canal in the center of the loggia In , in Florence , Cosimo I de' Medici , who had become ruler of the city at the age of only 17, also decided to launch a program of aqueduct and fountain building.

The city had previously gotten all its drinking water from wells and reservoirs of rain water, which meant that there was little water or water pressure to run fountains.

Cosimo built an aqueduct large enough for the first continually-running fountain in Florence, the Fountain of Neptune in the Piazza della Signoria — This fountain featured an enormous white marble statue of Neptune, resembling Cosimo, by sculptor Bartolomeo Ammannati.

Under the Medicis, fountains were not just sources of water, but advertisements of the power and benevolence of the city's rulers.

They became central elements not only of city squares, but of the new Italian Renaissance garden. The great Medici Villa at Castello, built for Cosimo by Benedetto Varchi , featured two monumental fountains on its central axis; one showing with two bronze figures representing Hercules slaying Antaeus , symbolizing the victory of Cosimo over his enemies; and a second fountain, in the middle of a circular labyrinth of cypresses, laurel, myrtle and roses, had a bronze statue by Giambologna which showed the goddess Venus wringing her hair.

The planet Venus was governed by Capricorn , which was the emblem of Cosimo; the fountain symbolized that he was the absolute master of Florence.

By the middle Renaissance, fountains had become a form of theater, with cascades and jets of water coming from marble statues of animals and mythological figures.

The most famous fountains of this kind were found in the Villa d'Este — , at Tivoli near Rome, which featured a hillside of basins, fountains and jets of water, as well as a fountain which produced music by pouring water into a chamber, forcing air into a series of flute-like pipes.

The gardens also featured giochi d'acqua , water jokes, hidden fountains which suddenly soaked visitors. The fountain, which originally stood against the wall of the church of the Holy Innocents, as rebuilt several times and now stands in a square near Les Halles.

It is the oldest fountain in Paris. Later, after the death of Henry II, his widow, Catherine de Medici , expelled Diane de Poitiers from Chenonceau and built her own fountain and garden there.

King Henry IV of France made an important contribution to French fountains by inviting an Italian hydraulic engineer, Tommaso Francini , who had worked on the fountains of the villa at Pratalino, to make fountains in France.

That fountain still exists today, with a long basin of water and statues added in The 17th and 18th centuries were a golden age for fountains in Rome, which began with the reconstruction of ruined Roman aqueducts and the construction by the Popes of mostra , or display fountains, to mark their termini.

The new fountains were expressions of the new Baroque art, which was officially promoted by the Catholic Church as a way to win popular support against the Protestant Reformation ; the Council of Trent had declared in the 16th century that the Church should counter austere Protestantism with art that was lavish, animated and emotional.

The fountains of Rome, like the paintings of Rubens , were examples of the principles of Baroque art. They were crowded with allegorical figures, and filled with emotion and movement.

In these fountains, sculpture became the principal element, and the water was used simply to animate and decorate the sculptures.

They, like baroque gardens, were "a visual representation of confidence and power. The first of the Fountains of St.

Peter's Basilica behind it. Its form, with a large circular vasque on a pedestal pouring water into a basin and an inverted vasque above it spouting water, was imitated two centuries later in the Fountains of the Place de la Concorde in Paris.

The Triton Fountain in the Piazza Barberini , by Gian Lorenzo Bernini , is a masterpiece of Baroque sculpture, representing Triton , half-man and half-fish, blowing his horn to calm the waters, following a text by the Roman poet Ovid in the Metamorphoses.

The Piazza Navona became a grand theater of water, with three fountains, built in a line on the site of the Stadium of Domitian. The fountains at either end are by Giacomo della Porta ; the Neptune fountain to the north, shows the God of the Sea spearing an octopus, surrounded by tritons , sea horses and mermaids.

At the southern end is Il Moro, possibly also a figure of Neptune riding a fish in a conch shell. The theme of a fountain with statues symbolizing great rivers was later used in the Place de la Concorde —40 and in the Fountain of Neptune in the Alexanderplatz in Berlin The fountains of Piazza Navona had one drawback - their water came from the Acqua Vergine, which had only a foot 7.

The Trevi Fountain is the largest and most spectacular of Rome's fountains, designed to glorify the three different Popes who created it.

It was built beginning in at the terminus of the reconstructed Acqua Vergine aqueduct, on the site of Renaissance fountain by Leon Battista Alberti.

The central figure is Oceanus , the personification of all the seas and oceans, in an oyster-shell chariot, surrounded by Tritons and Sea Nymphs.

In fact, the fountain had very little water pressure, because the source of water was, like the source for the Piazza Navona fountains, the Acqua Vergine, with a foot 7.

Salvi compensated for this problem by sinking the fountain down into the ground, and by carefully designing the cascade so that the water churned and tumbled, to add movement and drama.

Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi by Bernini , — Fontana della Barcaccia , Fountains of St. Peter's Square by Carlo Maderno and Bernini Triton Fountain by Bernini , Fontana delle Api Fountains of the Bees In this garden, the fountain played a central role.

He used fountains to demonstrate the power of man over nature, and to illustrate the grandeur of his rule. In the Gardens of Versailles , instead of falling naturally into a basin, water was shot into the sky, or formed into the shape of a fan or bouquet.

Dancing water was combined with music and fireworks to form a grand spectacle. These fountains were the work of the descendants of Tommaso Francini , the Italian hydraulic engineer who had come to France during the time of Henry IV and built the Medici Fountain and the Fountain of Diana at Fontainebleau.

Two fountains were the centerpieces of the Gardens of Versailles, both taken from the myths about Apollo, the sun god, the emblem of Louis XIV, and both symbolizing his power.

This was a reminder of how French peasants had abused Louis's mother, Anne of Austria , during the uprising called the Fronde in the s. When the fountain is turned on, sprays of water pour down on the peasants, who are frenzied as they are transformed into creatures.

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